On Friday, more than a month after the state ordered most indoor businesses to close again, Gov. Gavin Newsom unveiled California’s second attempt at a comprehensive plan to reopen.
“We’ve learned a lot over the last number of months,” Mr. Newsom said.
Gone is the county “monitoring list” system, which was rolled out piecemeal and has been criticized as confusing and fragmented.
In its place going forward, the governor said, is a framework that sorts each of the state’s 58 counties into a tier, which will determine how much businesses are restricted.
Unlike the monitoring-list model, which was based on a matrix of numbers that was difficult to parse, the new system is based largely on new daily case numbers per 100,000 residents, as well as positivity rates.
[Track coronavirus cases in each California county.]
Gone is leeway for county public health officials to make their own case to reopen; counties now won’t be able to move to a less restrictive tier unless they have met that tier’s criteria for at least two consecutive weeks. And each county must stay in its current tier for at least three weeks before it can move.
If a county’s numbers worsen for two weeks in a row, it will be moved to a more restrictive tier.
“We’re going to be more stubborn this time,” Mr. Newsom said.
The state’s earlier moves to reopen businesses were criticized for being too hasty and driven by the impatience of some businesses and some smaller, largely rural counties, rather than by evidence. (This month, for instance, The Los Angeles Times published this timeline showing how a rush to reopen businesses in Los Angeles County contributed to the virus’s alarming spread.)
Still, experts have said that the intense focus on whether to reopen nonessential businesses like restaurants, bars and movie theaters has come at the expense of what should have been more stringent enforcement of restrictions at large essential workplaces, where lower-wage workers were never able to stop working.
That is true particularly in the Central Valley, which has become the state’s most troubling and persistent hot spot.
[Read more about the state’s move to focus on the Central Valley — and why some said it should’ve come sooner.]
Mr. Newsom said on Friday that enforcement “strike teams,” including officials from various state agencies, have been doing spot checks aggressively for months, but that an expansion of enforcement capacity is “being negotiated” in the state’s Legislature.
Here are answers to questions you might have:
How did we get here?
All the way back in April, Mr. Newsom laid out what he described as a science-driven, deliberate phased process for reopening based on metrics such as hospitalizations, case growth and deaths.
But over the months that followed, the complexity of reopening a state with 58 very different counties spread across vast and varied geography became apparent.
Ceding to pressure from some businesses and officials mostly in smaller, more rural counties, Mr. Newsom announced a process for certain counties to move more quickly to reopen businesses than the rest of the state, effectively loosening the restrictions and adding complexity.
Then the state shifted to the “monitoring list,” which eventually came to encompass 90 percent of the state’s population.
In July, as cases surged, state officials announced that bars, which had been allowed to reopen indoors in many places, would have to shutter. Indoor operations of restaurants, card rooms and movie theaters were also ordered to close.
The result was a kind of emotional and economic whiplash.
So what do the tiers mean?
There are four color-coded tiers ranging from most restrictive to least: purple, red, orange and yellow. (There is no green, the governor noted — no county should see this as an opportunity to go back to normal.)
Counties have already been placed in a tier based on their recent new case numbers and positivity rates. They’ll be able to reopen businesses that are allowed in their given tier as early as today.
But not a whole lot will change immediately for the vast majority of Californians. The most restrictive tier, the purple, applies to 38 counties, including Los Angeles and Orange, that are home to more than 80 percent of the state’s population.
In these counties, many kinds of businesses must remain closed, unless they can operate outdoors, including restaurants. All bars, breweries and distilleries must stay closed, too, even if they have outdoor space. Hair salons, barber shops and malls can reopen indoors with modifications, however.
Nine counties are in the second most restrictive tier, the red, including San Diego and San Francisco, where some indoor dining will be allowed starting today. Gyms, houses of worship and movie theaters will also be allowed to reopen indoors with limited capacity.
About a dozen mostly smaller and more rural counties are in the two least restrictive tiers, which allow them to reopen bars and other indoor businesses at higher maximum capacities.
The Coronavirus Outbreak ›
Frequently Asked Questions
Updated August 27, 2020
What should I consider when choosing a mask?
- There are a few basic things to consider. Does it have at least two layers? Good. If you hold it up to the light, can you see through it? Bad. Can you blow a candle out through your mask? Bad. Do you feel mostly OK wearing it for hours at a time? Good. The most important thing, after finding a mask that fits well without gapping, is to find a mask that you will wear. Spend some time picking out your mask, and find something that works with your personal style. You should be wearing it whenever you’re out in public for the foreseeable future. Read more: What’s the Best Material for a Mask?
What are the symptoms of coronavirus?
- In the beginning, the coronavirus seemed like it was primarily a respiratory illness — many patients had fever and chills, were weak and tired, and coughed a lot, though some people don’t show many symptoms at all. Those who seemed sickest had pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome and received supplemental oxygen. By now, doctors have identified many more symptoms and syndromes. In April, the C.D.C. added to the list of early signs sore throat, fever, chills and muscle aches. Gastrointestinal upset, such as diarrhea and nausea, has also been observed. Another telltale sign of infection may be a sudden, profound diminution of one’s sense of smell and taste. Teenagers and young adults in some cases have developed painful red and purple lesions on their fingers and toes — nicknamed “Covid toe” — but few other serious symptoms.
Why does standing six feet away from others help?
- The coronavirus spreads primarily through droplets from your mouth and nose, especially when you cough or sneeze. The C.D.C., one of the organizations using that measure, bases its recommendation of six feet on the idea that most large droplets that people expel when they cough or sneeze will fall to the ground within six feet. But six feet has never been a magic number that guarantees complete protection. Sneezes, for instance, can launch droplets a lot farther than six feet, according to a recent study. It’s a rule of thumb: You should be safest standing six feet apart outside, especially when it’s windy. But keep a mask on at all times, even when you think you’re far enough apart.
I have antibodies. Am I now immune?
- As of right now, that seems likely, for at least several months. There have been frightening accounts of people suffering what seems to be a second bout of Covid-19. But experts say these patients may have a drawn-out course of infection, with the virus taking a slow toll weeks to months after initial exposure. People infected with the coronavirus typically produce immune molecules called antibodies, which are protective proteins made in response to an infection. These antibodies may last in the body only two to three months, which may seem worrisome, but that’s perfectly normal after an acute infection subsides, said Dr. Michael Mina, an immunologist at Harvard University. It may be possible to get the coronavirus again, but it’s highly unlikely that it would be possible in a short window of time from initial infection or make people sicker the second time.
I’m a small-business owner. Can I get relief?
- The stimulus bills enacted in March offer help for the millions of American small businesses. Those eligible for aid are businesses and nonprofit organizations with fewer than 500 workers, including sole proprietorships, independent contractors and freelancers. Some larger companies in some industries are also eligible. The help being offered, which is being managed by the Small Business Administration, includes the Paycheck Protection Program and the Economic Injury Disaster Loan program. But lots of folks have not yet seen payouts. Even those who have received help are confused: The rules are draconian, and some are stuck sitting on money they don’t know how to use. Many small-business owners are getting less than they expected or not hearing anything at all.
What are my rights if I am worried about going back to work?
[See the full grid showing which businesses are allowed to open under each tier.]
Will this affect school reopening?
Chadwick Boseman was a private figure by Hollywood standards, my colleagues wrote over the weekend. That’s maybe why it came as such a particularly wrenching shock that the actor, 43, died on Friday at home in Los Angeles.
But as countless fans have observed, he learned he had colon cancer in 2016, well before he took on some of his highest profile roles, including T’Challa in “Black Panther.” Which means that he may have had some time to think about the legacy he would leave behind.
My colleague Wesley Morris wrote that that’s a body of work portraying exceptional Black Americans with dignity — and making that dignity interesting.
“Boseman was no impersonator,” Wesley wrote. “He was in his way a historian.”
California Today goes live at 6:30 a.m. Pacific time weekdays. Tell us what you want to see: CAtoday@nytimes.com. Were you forwarded this email? Sign up for California Today here and read every edition online here.
Jill Cowan grew up in Orange County, went to school at U.C. Berkeley and has reported all over the state, including the Bay Area, Bakersfield and Los Angeles — but she always wants to see more. Follow along here or on Twitter.
California Today is edited by Julie Bloom, who grew up in Los Angeles and graduated from U.C. Berkeley.